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annotated bibliography Tuyệt chiêu giúp mẹ phòng bệnh về hô hấp cho bé - FAM Review
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Tuyệt chiêu giúp mẹ phòng bệnh về hô hấp cho bé Sức khỏe 

Tuyệt chiêu giúp mẹ phòng bệnh về hô hấp cho bé

Khi thời tiết chuyển mùa, các bé do hệ thống miễn dịch cơ thể còn yếu nên dễ mắc các bệnh đường hô hấp như viêm mũi dị ứng, sổ mũi, cảm cúm…

Mỗi khi giao mùa, thời tiết thay đổi làm cho cơ thể con người nếu thích nghi không kịp sẽ có những phản ứng ảnh hưởng đến sức khoẻ, nhất là trẻ em và đặc biệt là trẻ sơ sinh.

Dưới đây là một số bệnh đường hô hấp ở trẻ khi giao mùa và cách phòng tránh

1. Viêm mũi dị ứng

Khi thời tiết thay đổi, chuyển mùa bé dễ bị viêm mũi dị ứng, đặc biệt những bé có cơ địa mẫn cảm.

– Triệu chứng:

Bé ngứa mũi, hắt hơi nhiều, sổ mũi (nước mũi trong hoặc có đờm), có bé bị nghẹt mũi. Nặng hơn, bé bị khó thở, ù tai.

– Biến chứng:

Viêm mũi dị ứng có thể gây biến chứng thành hen phế quản, hen suyễn, viêm amidan ở bé.

– Phòng tránh/Chăm sóc:

Mẹ nên hạn chế cho bé tiếp xúc với vật nuôi như chó, mèo trong nhà.

Mẹ nên giặt giũ thường xuyên chăn, ga, gối cho bé. Vệ sinh nhà cửa sạch sẽ, tránh nấm mốc.

Không cho bé tiếp xúc với khói thuốc lá.

Dạy bé cách đánh răng ngày 2 lần là buổi tối trước khi đi ngủ và buổi sáng khi ngủ dậy.

Giữ ấm cho bé khi trời lạnh và không để bé bị nóng quá lúc trời ấm lên

cảm cúm, ho, phòng bệnh
Bệnh đường hô hấp ở trẻ thường xảy ra khi thời tiết thay đổi, chuyển mùa. (Ảnh minh họa)

2. Cảm/cúm:

Cảm do vi rút gây ra và lây lan qua không khí hoặc tiếp xúc trực tiếp với người bệnh. Cúm là bệnh về đường hô hấp do vi rút. Bệnh lây lan qua nước bọt, nước mũi/đờm của người mang bệnh.Trẻ nhỏ rất dễ bị lây bệnh này khi thay đổi thời tiết, nóng chuyển sang lạnh.

– Triệu chứng:

Khi bé bị cảm thường bị nghẹt mũi, chảy nước mũi, sốt, đau đầu, ho, sưng họng hoặc mệt mỏi. Bệnh cúm thường có triệu chứng sốt, đau các cơ, ho khan, chảy nước mũi, nghẹt mũi, đau đầu và mệt mỏi…nếu kèm theo sốt cao thì phải đưa đi khám ngay vì dễ bị biến chứng gây nguy hiểm đường hô hấp.

– Phòng tránh:

Mẹ cần mặc ấm cho trẻ, chú ý phần cổ, tay, chân

Khuyến khích trẻ tham gia hoạt động thể thao để có cơ hội hít thở không khí trong lành, tăng cường trao đổi chất.

Giữ không khí trong nhà luôn thoáng mát, không ẩm mốc.

Đối với trẻ những tháng đầu đời thì hãy cho con bú sữa mẹ. Trẻ bắt đầu ăn dặm được thì nên bổ sung nhiều rau, hoa quả và cho trẻ ăn chín.

Chú ý tới giấc ngủ của trẻ. Hãy đảm bảo trẻ ngủ trong môi trường thoáng gió và thoải mái.

3. Viêm phế quản

Sự thay đổi thời tiết đột ngột lúc giao mùa cũng dễ khiến trẻ bị viêm phế quản. Nguyên nhân gây bệnh có rất nhiều, do dị ứng với phấn hoa, hít phải các chất kích thích như khói thuốc, sợi bông hoặc len…

– Triệu chứng:

Biểu hiện của bệnh là trẻ gặp khó khăn khi thở, hơi thở nặng nhọc, giọng khò khè, ho nhiều và xuất hiện đờm. Khi thấy đờm của trẻ có màu vàng trắng tức là trẻ đã bị nhiễm trùng thứ cấp. Lúc này, người lớn không nên khiến trẻ cáu kỉnh vì khi đó trẻ sẽ hét to, việc hô hấp sẽ gặp khó khăn.

– Chăm sóc/ Phòng bệnh:

Luôn giữ ấm cơ thể cho trẻ, đặc biệt là vào ban đêm.

Chú ý chế độ dinh dưỡng, bổ sung nhiều nước và rau tươi. Trẻ bị viêm phế quản thường tiêu hóa kém nên cơ thể không hấp thu được nhiều chất dinh dưỡng, vì thế, khi nấu thức ăn cho trẻ, người lớn nên chia thành nhiều bữa nhỏ và nấu dạng lỏng để trẻ tiêu hóa dễ dàng hơn.

Nếu trong quá trình điều trị mà trẻ xuất hiện nhiều đờm,người lớn nên khuyên trẻ nhổ ra ngoài chứ không được nuốt. Nên để trẻ nằm nghiêng để dễ thở và cũng thuận lợi cho quá trình đào thải các chất nhầy trong cơ thể.

Người lớn nên chú ý, tuyệt đối không nhiệt độ cơ thể trẻ lên quá 38,5 độ. Khi con sốt cao, hãy kịp thời hạ sốt, lấy nước mát để làm dịu cơ thể và cho trẻ mặc đồ thoáng.

Để trẻ nằm phòng thoáng, đủ ánh sáng và duy trì độ ẩm nhất định giúp trẻ không gặp khó khăn khi hô hấp.

Đặc biệt, khi trong nhà có trẻ bị viêm phế quản thì người lớn tuyệt đối không được hút thuốc vì điều này gây bất lợi cho quá trình điều trị bệnh.

Làm gì để trẻ tăng cường sức đề kháng – phòng bệnh đường hô hấp ở trẻ?

– Cho trẻ bú mẹ từ những giờ đầu sau sinh và duy trì đến 2 tuổi.

– Ăn dặm đúng thời điểm với chế độ dinh dưỡng hợp lý.

– Cho trẻ uống nhiều nước hơn, ăn đủ chất dinh dưỡng, tăng cường rau xanh và hoa quả để tăng sức đề kháng

– Cho trẻ đi tiêm chủng đầy đủ theo chương trình tiêm chủng Quốc gia.

– Giữ vệ sinh sạch sẽ cho trẻ, vệ sinh mỗi họng hàng ngày bằng dung dịch nước muối sinh lý.

– Tránh nhiễm lạnh cho trẻ bằng cách không cho trẻ ăn uống đồ quá lạnh.

– Không hút thuốc lá và giữ nhà cửa luôn thông thoáng, sạch sẽ.

– Hạn chế đưa trẻ đến nơi đông người trong mùa dịch bệnh.

– Mang khẩu trang khi tiếp xúc với người bệnh.

Các bậc phụ huynh cần chú ý theo dõi và có chế độ dinh dưỡng hợp lý, giúp phòng tránh bệnh hô hấp ở trẻ khi giao mùa.

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